The shell midden deposit has been of interest to archaeologists, formally, since 1849 when
Worsaae convinced Steenstrup that the Danish sites were cultural refuse heaps or kjokkenmoddings
rather than natural shell beds (Bibby 1956: 118). Though kitchen middens, shell heaps,
mounds, sambaquis, and other named shell deposits have been recognized and excavated around
the world ever since – and served as data for important theories – the specific behaviors and
processes responsiblef or their formation and subsequentt ransformationr emainp oorly known. 1
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